The Secrets of Persuasion
A Cialdini’s towel experiments(more of them later),are part of his research into how we persuade others to say yes.He wants to know why some people have a knack for bending the will of others,is it a telephone cold-caller talking to you about timeshares,or a parent whose children are compliant even without threats of extreme violence.While he’s anxious not to be seen as the man who’s written the bible for snake-oil salesmen,for decades the Arizona State University social psychology professor has been creating systems for the principles and methods of persuasion,and writing bestsellers about them.Some people seem to be born with the skills,Cialdini’s claim is that by applying a little science,even those of us who aren't should be able to get our own way more often.“All my life I’ve been an easy mark for the blandishment of salespeople and fundraisers and I'd always wondered why they could get me to buy things I didn't want and give to causes I hadn't heard of”,says Cialdini,on the phone from London,where he is plugging his latest book.
B He found that laboratory experiments on the psychology of persuasion were telling only part of the story,so he began to research influence in the real world,enrolling in sales-training programmes:“I learnt how to sell automobiles from a lot,how to sell insurance from an office,how to sell encyclopedias door to door”.He concluded there were six general“principles of influence” and has since put them to the test under slightly more scientific conditions.Most recently,that has meant messing about with towels.Many hotels leave a little card in each bathroom asking guests to reuse towels and thus conserve water and electricity and reduce pollution.Cialdini and his colleagues wanted to test the relative effectiveness of different words on those cards.Would guests be motivated to co-operate simply because it would help save the planet,or were other factors more compelling?To test this,the researchers changed the card’s message from an environmental one to the simple(and truthful)statement that the majority of guests at the hotel had reused their towel at least once.Guests given this message were 26% more likely to reuse their towels than those given the old message.
C So much for towels.Cialdini has also learnt a lot from confectionery.Yes!Cites the work of New Jersey behavioural scientist David Strohmetz,who wanted to see how restaurant patrons would respond to a ridiculously small favour from their food server,in the form of an after-dinner chocolate for each diner.The secret,it seems,is in how you give the chocolate.When the chocolates arrived in a heap with the bill.tips went up a miserly 3%compared to when no chocolate was given.But when the chocolates were dropped individually in front of each diner,tips went up 14%.The scientific breakthrough,though,came when the waitress gave each diner one chocolate,headed away from the table then doubled back to give them one more each,as if such generosity had only just occurred to her.Tips went up 23%.This is“reciprocity”in action: we want to return favours done to us,often without bothering to calculate the relative value of what is being received and given.
D Geeling Ng,operations manager at Aucldand’s Soul Bar,says she’s never heard of Kiwi waiting staff using such a cynical trick,not least because New Zealand tipping culture is so different from that of the US:“If you did that in New Zealand,as diners were leaving they’d say can we have some more?”But she certainly understands the general principle of reciprocity.The way to a diner’ s heart is“to give them something they’re not expecting in the way of service”.It might be something as small as leaving a mint on their plate,or it might be remembering that last time they were in they wanted their water with no ice and no lemon.“In America it would translate into an instant tip.In New Zealand it translates into a huge smile and thank you.”And no doubt,return visits.
PRINCIPLES OF PERSUASION
E Reciprocity:People want to give back to those who have given to them.The trick here is to get in first.That’ s why charities put a crummy pen inside a mail out,and why smiling women in supermarkets hand out dollops of free food.Scarcity:People want more of things they can have less of.Advertisers ruthlessly exploit scarcity(“limit four per customer”,“sale must end soon”),and Cialdini suggests parents do too:“Kids want things that are less available,so say‘this is an unusual opportunity,you can only have this for a certain time’.” Authority:We trust people who know what they’re talking about.So inform people honestly of your credentials before you set out to influence them.“You’d be surprised how many people fail to do that,”says Cialdini.“They feel it’s impolite to talk about their expertise.”In one study,therapists whose patients wouldn’t do their exercises were advised to display their qualification certificates Prominently.They did,and experienced an immediate leap in patient compliance.Commitment/consistency:We want to act in a way that is consistent with the commitments we have already made.Exploit this to get a higher sign-up rate when soliciting charitable donations.First ask workmates if they think they will sponsor you on your egg-and-spoon marathon.Latex return with the sponsorship form to those who said yes and remind them of their earlier commitment.
Liking：We say yes more often to people we like.Obvious enough,but reasons for“liking”can be weird.In one study,people were sent survey forms and asked to return them to a named researcher.When the researcher gave a fake name resembling that of the subject(e.g,Cynthia Johnson is sent a survey by“Cindy Johansen”),surveys were twice as likely to be completed.We favour people who resemble us,even if the resemblance is as minor as the sound of their name.Social proof:“We decide what to do by looking around to see what others just like us are doing.Useful for parents,says Cialdini.“Find groups of children who are behaving in a way that you would like your child to,because the child looks to the side,rather than at you.” More perniciously,social proof is the force underpinning the competitive materialism of“keeping up with the Joneses”.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts with the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
14 Robert Cialdini experienced“principles of persuasion”at home.
15 Principle of persuasion has different types in the two different countries.
16 In New Zealand,people tend to give tips to attendants after being served a chocolate.
17 Elder generation of New Zealand is easily attracted by extra service of restaurants by principle
Choose the correct letter,A,B,C or D.
18 What made Cialdinienrollin“sales-training programmes’’in passage B?
A His interests lying in academic part.
B His motivation of researching secrete of persuasion.
C His identity of professor made him easily entre the course.
D This course related to the towel experiment he carried out.
19 Which of the following is NOT TRUE about Robert Cialdini?
A He is an academic psychologist in University.
B He is a representative of saponaceous sales.
C He participated in a sale training course.
D He carried out towel experiment with colleagues.
20 Which of the followings is CORRECT according to towel experiment in the passage?
AThe experiment inspired from book of Science of Persuasion.
B Different messages have different effects to Guests.
C Customers behave more ecologically after renewed message.
D Hotels leave cards asking guests to switch off lights.
21 Which of the followings is CORRECT according to the candy shop experiment in the passage?
A Presenting way affects diner’s tips.
B Regular customer gives tips more than irregulars.
C People give tips only when offered chocolates.
D Chocolate with bill got higher tips.
Use the information in the passage to match the category(listed A-I)with correct description
A fancy title
B previous commitment
C cynical trick
D unusual opportunity
E compelling message
F bad behavior
G relative value
H competitive materialism
I similar name
22 Chocolate experiment suggested that people won’t assess the_____between obtaining and
23 Parents use“Reciprocity principle”to persuade their children that‘it is a/an____make them
24 Expert won’t show their certificate as it might be considered as a_____to show off.
25 You can remind those of further undertaking their_____if they said yes to your charity
26 A_____between survey organizer and interviewee would help survey to be done in a positive
The Secrets of Persuasion
B B B A G D F B I